Islam and Nazi Germanys War
Published November 30th by Belknap Press first published November 17th More Details Original Title. Other Editions 6. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Islam and Nazi Germany's War , please sign up.
Be the first to ask a question about Islam and Nazi Germany's War. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Dec 06, Jeremy rated it it was amazing. This book is the first comprehensive history of Muslims under Nazi rule.
Islam and Nazi Germany's war
Aug 17, Robert rated it it was amazing. A breathtaking account of the Islamic world in the Second World War; thoroughly researched. Sep 16, Phoenix rated it it was amazing Shelves: history , middle-east. Hitler's Islam Card Motadel begins by probing the initial German misconception that existed prior to WW I that pan-Islamism was a powerful and monolithic force that could be harnessed to unseat the hegemony of rival British, French and Tsarist empires.
Calls for Hitler's Islam Card Motadel begins by probing the initial German misconception that existed prior to WW I that pan-Islamism was a powerful and monolithic force that could be harnessed to unseat the hegemony of rival British, French and Tsarist empires. Calls for a Holy War backed by secular Young Turks in Istanbul were seen as hypocritical as were calls attacking Christian powers that excluded Istanbul's ally Germany. Then as now the Islamic world was widely divided into rival sects based on different cultures and theological groupings.
As an example, the al-Kilani led uprising in Iraq against the British in only received minimal and belated. What follows is a well documented in depth analysis of how German strategy played out in each of North Africa, Russia and the Balkan fronts. The results were far from uniform. Most were considered unsuitable for combat and served in labour brigades.
Islam and Nazi Germany's War - David Motadel - Häftad () | Bokus
Many proved to be disloyal. There was more success in the Balkans. To this end the Germans made extensive use of imams, attaching them to Muslim units. The fugitive Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amini al-Husayni who was employed to create propaganda, lecture and advise. Rather than lecturing directly to the soldiers on matters of religion, the Nazis set up training schools for imams, the curriculum shortened to emphasize similarities between National Socialism and Islam. Widely seen as liberators, religious freedom for Muslims was an easy price for the Nazis to pay, though they had to do this delicately in Ustasi run Catholic Croatia.
Both Axis and Allied literature advised on respectful attitudes towards Muslims, not always adhered to by enlisted men, however the Nazis had special problems.
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In the early part of the Balkan campaign many Muslims were executed as, being circumcised they were mistaken for Jews. Muslim Roma were also killed off, alienating co-religionists. Jewish Mountain Tats, because they practiced polygamy and did not conform to Nazi conceptions of Jew were considered Turkic as were the Karaites and were spared, but not the Krymchaks who were murdered. For the Crimean Tatars and others, giving allegiance was a Hobson's choice, sometimes motivated by religion but also by the need to stay alive during wartime. Those following current events in the Ukraine should realize that the Tatars were punished dearly by mass expulsion to Kazakhstan and Central Asia as were Karachais, Balkars, Chechens and Ingush; many were subsequently executed by the NKVD.
The Wehrmacht and the SS moved from an initial concept of a uniform pan-Islamism to a more refined model.
They soon realized that mixing Sunni and Shia in the same units didn't work and rejected inserting Muslims supporters from India into units in Bosnia, calculating that the Indians would be motivated more by nationalist and anti-British concerns than by religion. Not everyone in the German political structure were convinced. Hitler's own assessment of the value of the Nazi-Muslim alliance was as follows: "For the time being I consider the formation of battalions of these pure Caucasian peoples as very risky, while I don't see any danger in forming pure Mohammedan units Despite all explanations, either from Rosenberg or from the military side, I don't trust the Armenians either The only ones I consider to be reliable are the pure Mohammedans.
The Enemies of our Enemies: Islam in Nazi Germany – By Mehnaz M. Afridi
I consider only the Mohammedans to be safe. All others I consider unsafe". It's a brilliantly constructed read that should be of great interest for WW II enthusiasts and an essential purchase for library collections on the history of the era. Motadel has integrated a comprehensive range of material from the archives of 14 different countries establishing a holistic picture of how the strategy was implemented and played out. His highly nuanced view of Muslim sentiment is one that could well serve as a model for understanding the turmoil going on in that part of the world today and a general warning about attempts to instrumentalize religious and nationalist beliefs.
Sehr empfehlenswert! Nov 19, Nikolas Larum rated it liked it Shelves: history , middle-east. As I should have known, the subject is a bit more complex than first imagined. The author doesn't draw the influences forward. More scholarly than narrative, it was informative. On the Muslim side one cannot generalise. Some of the Muslim allies of the Nazi regime — most importantly the famous Mufti of Jerusalem — shared the Nazis' Jew-hatred. In the war zones, in the Balkans, in North Africa and in the Eastern territories, the picture is more complicated. In many of these regions, Muslims and Jews had lived together for centuries.
And in some cases, Muslims would now help their Jewish neighbours, for example hiding them from the Germans. What goals did the Nazi regime pursue with its attempt to persuade Muslims to join them and what were sympathetic Muslim leaders hoping for?
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Motadel: The Third Reich's engagement with Islam was not only that Muslim-populated regions had become part of the war zones, but also, more importantly, that from to , Germany's military situation had deteriorated. In the Soviet Union, Hitler's Blitzkrieg strategy had failed. As the Wehrmacht came under pressure, strategists in Berlin began to seek broader war coalitions, thereby demonstrating remarkable pragmatism.
The courtship of Muslims was to pacify the occupied Muslim-populated territories and to mobilise Muslims to fight on the side of Hitler's armies. Many of those Muslims who worked with the Nazi regime had pragmatic reasons. They believed that Nazi Germany in would be victorious and that it would determine the future world order and that the Nazis could help them become liberated from, for example, British imperial rule.
The motives of these soldiers varied considerably. Of course some recruits were driven by religious hatred and anti-Bolshevist, ideological fervour. Overall, however, Muslims often had rather profane motives for enlisting. Did the Nazis really see Islam as something inherently positive or were the Muslims only a means to an end? Motadel: Overall, I think that Muslims were means to an end. Nazi policies towards Islam were informed by pragmatism. Whenever denouncing the Catholic Church, Hitler routinely contrasted it with Islam.
While he denounced Catholicism as a weak, effeminate religion, he praised Islam as a strong, aggressive, martial religion. Overall, however, it was strategic considerations, not ideology, that led to Nazi Germany's campaign for Islamic mobilisation. Motadel: Hitler had already postulated the racial inferiority of non-European peoples in "Mein Kampf".
Once in power, however, German officials showed themselves to be more pragmatic: non-Jewish Turks, Iranians and Arabs had already been explicitly exempted from any official racial discrimination in the s, following diplomatic interventions from the governments in Tehran, Ankara and Cairo. And during the war the Germans showed similar pragmatism.
Muslims everywhere, it was clear to every German officer, were to be treated as allies. The realities on the ground were by no means straightforward. In the first months of the Nazi invasion of Russia, SS squads executed thousands of Muslims on the assumption that their circumcision showed that they were Jewish. Eventually, Reinhard Heydrich, chief Nazi security officer, sent out a directive cautioning the taskforce executing squads to be more careful.
On the southern fringes of the Soviet Union, however, German killing squads still had difficulties distinguishing Muslims from Jews. Sheikh Hussein is a town in the Oromia region in south-eastern Ethiopia. The tomb of the 13th century Sufi Sheikh Hussein who introduced Islam to the area and is said to have performed many miracles is still visited by thousands of people.
By Eric Lafforgue.